Are there studies comparing impaired driving involving both drugs and alcohol

Arria, Amelia M., Kimberly M. Caldeira, Kathryn B. Vincent, Laura M. Garnier-Dykstra and Kevin E. O'Grady. "Substance-Related Traffic-Risk Behaviors among College Students." 118 Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2-3 (November 2011):306-312.

This study attempts to estimate how often individuals are driving drugged or are a passenger in a car being driven by someone under the influence, compare age, sex and race differences concerning drugged driving and riding, examine the relationship between drugs, alcohol and driving, and finally examine the relationship between dependency and drugged/drunk driving.

Begg, Dorothy J., John D. Langley and Shaun Stephenson. "Identifying Factors that Predict Persistent Driving after Drinking, Unsafe Driving after Drinking, and Driving after Using Cannabis among Young Adults." 35 Accident Analysis & Prevention 5 (September 2003): 669-675.

The goal of this article was to determine the factors that predicted three different scenarios among young adults: persistent driving after drinking, persistent unsafe driving after drinking and persistent cannabis use and driving. The data from a longitudinal study concluded that different factors lead men and women to engage in these activities, and therefore different intervention programs need to be designed with these characteristics in mind.

Christophersen, A.S, S. Skurtveit, M. Grung and J. Mørland. "Rearrest Rates among Norwegian Drugged Drivers Compared with Drunken Drivers." 66 Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1 (March 2002): 85-92.

The focus of this article is to examine the factors that contribute to rearrest rates for two groups of individuals: arrested drugged drivers and arrested drunk drivers. The data shows that drugged drivers had higher rates of being arrested again. Specifically prior-arrests, being male and being younger than 36 were significant and influential factors in determining rearrest rates.

Fergusson, David M., L. John Horwood and Joseph M. Boden. "Is Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis Becoming a Greater Risk to Driver Safety than Drink Driving? Findings from a Longitudinal Study." 40 Accident Analysis & Prevention 4 (July 2008):1345-1350.

This article examines data from a New Zealand longitudinal study about drugged and drunk driving. The authors determine that individuals are significantly more likely to have driven drugged than drunk, and that both driving drugged and driving drunk leads to a greater likelihood of getting into a motor vehicle accident. They also determine that driving drugged has a potentially greater risk of getting into an accident than driving drunk.

Lenné, Michael G., Paul M. Dietze, Thomas J. Triggs, Susan Walmsley, Brendan Murphy and Jennifer R. Redman. "The Effects of Cannabis and Alcohol on Simulated Arterial Driving: Influences of Driving Experience and Task Demand." 42 Accident Analysis & Prevention 3 (May 2010): 859-866.

This study examines a person's ability to control a car after smoking marijuana and after drinking alcohol. The researchers contrasted low and high doses of both alcohol and marijuana with placebos among experience and inexperienced drivers. In addition, some subjects were under the influence of both marijuana and alcohol. The authors found that high levels of cannabis were impairing, while alcohol at the levels provided was not. In addition, the combination of both drugs did not increase how impaired drivers were.

Matthews, Allison, Raimondo Bruno, Jennifer Johnston, Emma Black, Louisa Degenhardt and Matthew Dunn. "Factors Associated with Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Drugs among an Australian Sample of Regular Ecstasy Users." 100 Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1-2 (February 2009): 24-31.

This article looked at driving under three different drugs: cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamine. The data showed that the more often an individual engaged in drug use with these three drugs, the more likely they were to have driven under the influence of them. A significant factor associated with drugged driving was the low perception of causing an accident. The findings in this study can be used to more specifically target intervention methods at chronic users and drugged drivers

Ursino, Brian A. "Halting Impaired Driving." 73 The Police Chief 7 (July 2006).

This article describes several different organizations and their attempts to analyze, intervene and prevent drugged driving.

Voas, Robert B., Robert L. DuPont, Stephen K. Talpins and Corinne L. Shea. "Towards a National Model for Managing Impaired Driving Offenders." 106 Addiction 7 (July 2011): 1221-1227.

This article aims to identify intervention methods in order to prevent recidivism of impaired drivers. The authors propose that a national model of intervention that focuses on inhibiting an individual from future drinking and drug use through interlock technology on their cars as well as appropriate sanctions for noncompliance.